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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

Golden State equaled the 1957-58 Celtics as the only defending champions to win their initial 14 games. The Warriors are one of five teams in NBA history to begin 14-0, and will travel to Denver looking to keep it going Sunday.

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Belize's proximity to Mexico and the Caribbean ensures the street-food scene, providing an abundance of budget meal options.
Iron ore imports fell 12.3 per cent by volume in October from the previous month and 4.9 per cent from the same month a year earlier while coal imports were down 21.4 per cent from September and 30.7 per cent from a year earlier, according to Chinese customs data.
Revenge epic The Revenant was named best drama picture and DiCaprio and Inarritu walked to the stage to collect it together.

平均工作经验:费城班10年,旧金山班12年
As a national exam with more than 1 million test takers every year, the National Postgraduates Entrance Examination is very important for students' academic life, and cheating incidents have been exposed from time to time.
过去10年,全球最具价值品牌100强的品牌价值增长一倍多,增幅达到133%。品牌价值是根据收入和盈利能力等财务指标,结合消费者品牌认知调查计算的。

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

一线城市新酒店供应量大幅放缓 新式酒店吸引“非传统玩家”

['?up?nnis]
换句话说,我们看到的只是气候变化方面的虚假黎明。
祝来年好运,并取得更大的成就。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

其中,由于IT/互联网/通讯/电子行业迅猛发展,吸纳了近三成的2016年应届毕业生。
所以我不知道2014会发生什么——谁也不知道。但在我的想象中,它会是这样的:
"过去,大熊猫很难进行圈养,但是经过成都熊猫基地和世界各地许多动物园的通力合作,人类已经攻克了这个难题。目前世界上已经有了将近400只人工大熊猫。" 马文如是说。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • Against: It's not yet managing to win top honors from critics' groups.
  • 宜居宜业 大湾区就是我的家
  • 在解释他如何改动小说时,赫洛维兹说:“我想答案是在书中忠实于邦德的全部特征。”
  • 杭州萧山高价地楼盘亏本入市 还有房企变相降价卖房
  • NOA设计工作室:乐家Inspira系列马桶
  • 旅友们,注意啦!尽管你可能还没制定好旅行计划,但“2014年最佳旅游目的地榜单”已经新鲜出炉了。近日,著名旅行指南出版商孤独星球出版社发布了“2014最佳旅游”排行榜。下面我们就从排名前十的国家中挑选出一些目的地让你先睹为快。
    “这不是可持续的增长,因为它们并未被租出去,当地市场的喊价者们并不会购买。”

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 深圳带租约二手房接收难问题亟需治理, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

雄安新区从准备阶段向规划实施阶段做准备

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

地板企业需转变发展模式 应开辟新天地

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 在经过了漫长的海选和五天紧张的半决赛之后,11位候选选手中其中一位成为了第八季英国达人秀2014年的冠军。
    拯救非洲癌症患者
  • 这两个非比寻常的性玩具将在美国旧金山亚洲艺术博物馆即将举办的展览中展出。
    单词medal 联想记忆:
    Her piece, titled “Back to Mother Nature," depicts an elaborate water-cleaning machine. Zhang worked with a team of artists at Google to animate her drawing.
    Luckily, the singles are only half the story with Reputation. On "Dress," she's high on the rush of a new romantic thrill; on "New Year's Day," she's trying to figure out what she has after the party's over.
    The memes included jokes about pedophilia, child abuse, sexual assault, and the Holocaust.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 今年超百城发布150余次楼市政策 调控效果如何?
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 受困融资渠道收窄 房企千方百计调降负债率

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

通过药物注射传播艾滋病病毒的情况已得到有效控制。2017年,经注射吸毒感染者的人数相比2012年下降44.5%。
Xi'an Xianyang International Airport outshone all other airports in China, with a punctuality rate of 82.3%.
高通(Qualcomm)总部所在地的农民们肯定像它的雇员一样超爱这家无线电公司。每周,高通会在其总部圣地亚哥择址两处举办农夫市集。出售的商品从传统农产品到果酱、果冻无所不包。凡是订购了“社区支持农业”素食礼盒的高通雇员,在总部的一家咖啡馆即可轻松收货。
让它具有一定的危险性,因为这也会让你的“华生”兴趣盎然。
[r?b]
紧接着地球研究所上一年的榜单,整个全球调查跨越2010到2012。尽管“在过去的五年间,整个世界变得更快乐,更慷慨了一点,” 但在另一些国家,由于经济或政治上的动荡,人民的幸福感却大幅降低。
The Brexit trade uncertainty

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 外套。来一套贝达弗的大衣和蓝围巾。一套价值1350英镑的大衣,随时准备迎接人生的精彩时刻。
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  • 当时,身为首席执行官的库克也承受着压力,因为苹果除了从iPhone攫取利润之外,缺乏清晰的产品开发方向。维权投资者嗅到了血腥,开始围攻这家公司,打头的是大卫?艾因霍恩(David Einhorn),接着是卡尔?伊坎(Carl Icahn),他们游说改变苹果的经营和财务管理方式。伊坎施压要求苹果筹集巨额债务,向股东返还1500亿美元,并敦促苹果发布包括电视机在内的更多产品。
    Mila Kunis just keeps on raking in those sexy titles.
  • 统计局:8月一二三线城市商品住宅销售价格稳中有涨
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 单词available 联想记忆:
    ? Dozens were killed, hundreds of miles of coastline were flooded and New York City's infrastructure was dealt a massive blow as the super-storm Sandy moved through the mid-Atlantic states on Monday night and into Tuesday. Millions of people were left without power.
  • Throughout Downsizing, I kept asking myself what the point of all of this was, never engaged by its hodgepodge of themes. I wish the filmmakers had asked that question too.
    Dachis says: 2011 saw a huge bounce for Dominos in brand enthusiasm from their brand relaunch which 2012 just couldn’t match. It’s a shame they can’t redesign their recipes every year.
  • 也许同等重要的是,稳定或者下降的油价将会缓解通货膨胀压力使美国工人的工资更具有购买力。Renaissance Macro经济学家Neil Dutta 称“这对于国内需求来说是一个明确的积极的消息,人们将会有更多可以用来消费的钱”。
    74个重点城市细颗粒物(PM2.5)年均浓度下降9.1%;
  • The rest of them, he goes over quickly:
    2010年中国的房价将达到顶点?
    An early iteration of Summly, called Trimit, was featured in Apple's app store in July 2011 on a list of new and noteworthy offerings. There it was noticed by the influential Silicon Valley blog TechCrunch and quickly came to the attention of an investment group led by Li Ka-shing. When D'Aloisio was approached over email by Li's people at Horizons Ventures, he was only 15-and so far mostly managed to conceal that fact. He'd never met with anyone in the tech world face to face, and the information he'd listed when he registered Trimit spoke only vaguely of a London technology company. It failed to mention that the company's management and technology teams-in fact, its entire workforce-consisted of a single kid in a suburban bedroom who wasn't yet old enough to drive.
  • Employment growth exceeded projections.
    《银河护卫队》之所以能成为一部大获成功的超级英雄系列电影,原因之一就是它的幽默感。这部影片充满了自嘲和讽刺。观看这部影片的时候,你不会一直笑个不停,但至少会有一些瞬间让你哈哈大笑,比如树人和克里斯?帕特出场的时候。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 今年青海省力争实现农牧民危旧房改造“清零” shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

二三线城市成交全线上涨 楼市去库存渐见起色

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

京津冀将现“1小时通勤圈”

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

北大博士吐槽买房:限贷门槛刚解决9折利率又来了

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

解读钢材市场:10月份中国钢材价格大跌可能性不大

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • EMBAGlobal is the only programme in the top 10 that saw a slight drop in the average salary of its alumni compared with last year (the other nine recorded strong increases).
  • 政府已经意识到了房地产泡沫的危险性——可能造成国民经济的通货膨胀,甚至可能因为泡沫破灭,最终导致正在复苏的经济脱离正轨。政府已经出台了相关的政策措施,给火爆的房地产市场降降温。在2010年依靠政府出台的政策来调控房价,你认为这有多靠谱?
  • 2018产业经济重大新闻事件点评(5月)

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 影片讲述了一个神秘的水生生物和莎莉霍金斯扮演的哑女之间超凡脱俗的爱情故事。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 在岛上海边的总督大楼,数万名支持群众等待罗塞略在宣誓就职典礼后的到来,手握着伞挡住炽热阳光。
    v. 伸展,展开,传播,散布,铺开,涂撒
    Best chances: Sally Hawkins is only a fraction behind current best actress favorite Frances McDormand.
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Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • Beijing ranked No 3 on the list of top 10 most congested cites in China, following Jinan and Harbin, according to a report by China Academy of Transportation Sciences.
  • 家居卖场“入市”城市边缘区 拉动县域经济增长点
  • n. 保守派(党),

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 国家统计局:2017年全国居民消费价格指数同比上涨1.6%
  • Household substance abuse
  • 老旧小区加装电梯 需要公共部门多出一把力
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

4月北京住房租赁市场量跌价稳

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 瓷砖经销商频跳槽 互利才能保持长久关系
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 国家发展改革委外资司召开中法第三方市场合作项目推进会
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

The blocks of flats which were up to 12 storeys high in the city of Wuhan are making way for a huge new business district including a 707-metre tall skyscraper.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

Among them, IT/Internet/telecommunications/electronics industries absorb nearly 30% 2016 graduates for the rapid development.
People promoting driverless cars, the most hyped industry segment of the moment, became world leaders in verbiage. Elon Musk claimed to be “laser-focused on achieving full self-driving capability on one integrated platform with an order of magnitude greater safety than the average manually driven car” (ie Tesla cars must stop crashing).
Executives from PwC immediately realized there was a problem, but they were too late to rectify the mistake as Dunaway read out the name La La Land from a card that was meant to be for the Best Actress award, which Emma Stone won for her role in the film earlier in the night.
Exports fell 6.6 per cent year-on-year in January to Rmb1.14tn, following a 2.3 per cent gain in December. Economists expected a gain of 3.6 per cent. It was the biggest fall in exports since an 8.9 per cent drop in July last year.
e出,leg腿:露出大白腿………高雅的;但是靠这个优雅也是比较悲哀的一件事
有些科学家认为,那些记忆力超群的人其实是采用了一种特殊的“归档法”来使自己记忆的东西变得有条理。有的时候,魔术师们也会用上一些需要超高记忆能力的心理欺骗术使观众连连惊叹。但是你如果你只是担心自己会忘记日常生活中的一些小事情,其实并不需要用到心理欺骗术这么高端的东西啦!一些科学小方法就可以帮助你实现这个目标。以下就是10个提高记忆能力的方法,你记得住吗?
A party of 108 pandas – performers dressed in costumes – descended on London streets today to promote the plight of the cuddly black and white endangered species.
The two gunmen who slaughtered 12 people at satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo,Cherif Kouachi and his brother Said, were likely among those who had left the country to "to be trained to kill and to sow terror".
n. 宪章,特许,(船、机、车等的)租赁
地区

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

京发布首个共有产权养老试点 谁能入住?

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • City on the Silk Road
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • optimistic
  • 河北区市场监管局:严打房地产市场 虚假违法广告
  • 以100亿港元(合12.9亿美元)购入大新金融中心(Dah Sing Financial Centre)的中国光大控股(China Everbright),只是过去一年里在香港大举购置总部大楼的众多内地企业之一。
  • “房票”将释放 通州楼市会再热起来吗?
  • Explaining how he adjusted the novel, he said: 'I think the answer is that in the book I remain true to every one of Bond's things.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • “海绵城市”建设 防水材料管材板块率先受益
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • This umbrella protects your dogs from the sun and rain.
  • 玛丽?芭拉从通用汽车的第三把交椅升至第一把交椅,获得首席执行官提名,这一路上她突破了好几个历史性障碍。一方面,通过任命一位非执行主席掌管董事会,她能更容易打开工作局面;但另一方面,由于一位对手接手了她以前的职责,她现在的工作又变得更棘手了。她是二十年来首位掌管公司的产品工程师,各种建议势必将纷至沓来,令人应接不暇。这些建议小到新皮卡上的空调出风口,大到别克(Buick)和雪佛兰(Chevrolet)这些品牌的前景,无所不包。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

雷士内斗近况:吴长江1.3亿德豪润达股权遭冻结

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